Gummosis has occurred in black wattle plantations in Brazil for more than 40 years (Santos and Luz 2007). The etiology was resolved only recently, with the causal agents identified as Phytophthora nicotianae (Santos et al. 2005), P. boehmeriae (Santos et al. 2006) and P. frigida (Alves et al. 2016). In South Africa, this disease has been reported in black wattle by Zeiljemaker (1971) associated with P. nicotianae and by Roux and Wingfield (1997) associated with P. boehmeriae and P. meadii.
Gummosis by P. boehmeriae has a limited geographical distribution in black wattle production areas of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil (Santos and Luz 2007) and South Africa.
Gummosis caused by P. boehmeriae occurs in outbreaks in rainy years associated with strong and constant winds (Santos and Luz 2007). Black wattle plantations of Brazilian trees with gummosis caused by P. boehmeriae can be distinguished from those caused by P. frigida and P. nicotianae (Santos 2001, Santos and Luz 2007, Alves et al. 2016). Gummosis associated with P. frigida and P. nicotianae has lesions in the basal region of the trunk and does not exceed 1.5 m in height, while gummosis associated with P. boehmeriae produces lesions over the entire trunk reaching up to 10 m.
|Host Latin Name
|Host Common Name
|Brazil, South Africa
|Chinese grass, White ramie
|Australia, China, Greece, Japan, South Africa, Taiwan
|Argentina, Australia, China
|Leaf necrosis, Root rot
|Mexican yellow pine