Reconstruction of the sudden oak death epidemic in California through microsatellite analysis of the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Molecular Ecology, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Volume 17, Number 11, p.2755–2768 (2008)



genetic structure, microsatellite, network analysis, Phytophthora ramorum, spatial autocorrelation, Sudden oak death


The genetic structure of the clonally reproducing Sudden Oak Death (SOD) pathogen in California was investigated using seven variable microsatellites. A total of 35 multilocus genotypes were identified among 292 samples representative of populations from 14 forest sites and of the nursery trade. amova indicated significant genetic variability both within (44.34%) and among populations (55.66%). Spatial autocorrelation analyses indicated that Moran’s index of similarity reached a minimum of 0.1 at 350 m, increased to 0.4 at 1500 m and then decreased to zero at 10 km. These results suggest a bimodal pattern of spread, with medium range dispersal (1500–10 000 m) putatively attributed to the presence of strong winds. Lack of genetic structure was identified for three groups of populations. One group notably included the nurseries’ population and two forest populations, both linked to early reports of the pathogen. A neighbour-joining analysis based on pairwise ΦST values indicated that the clade inclusive of the nurseries’ populations is basal to all California populations. A network analysis identified three common genotypes as the likely founders of the California infestation and proposes a stepwise model for local evolution of novel genotypes. This was supported by the identification in the same locations of novel genotypes and of their 1- or 2-step parents. We hypothesize that the few undifferentiated population groups indicate historical human spread of the pathogen, while the general presence of genetically structured populations indicates that new infestations are currently generated by rare medium or long-range natural movement of the pathogen, followed by local generation of new genotypes.