Occurrence and distribution of Phytophthora; species in European chestnut stands, and their association with Ink Disease and crown decline

Publication Type:

Journal Article


European Journal of Plant Pathology, Springer Netherlands, Volume 111, p.169-180 (2005)




The Phytophthora complex associated with Castanea sativa Mill. was investigated in five European countries in 35 regions and with respect to various domestication levels. Annual precipitation and length of drought season were the main parameters that regulated the presence of Phytophthora species in the chestnut stands. Seven species of Phytophthora were detected; three of these, P. megasperma, P. cryptogea and P. syringae had not been previously reported on sweet chestnut. P. cinnamomi. P. cambivora and P. citricola were most frequently isolated. P. cinnamomi and P. cambivora were the species significantly associated with declining trees with symptoms of Ink Disease. P. cinnamomi required distinct ecological conditions compared to the other species. P. cinnamomi was never detected in sites characterized by minimum temperatures below 1.4 °C, maximum temperature above 28 °C, or soil pH below 5.4. The results obtained provide useful information for modeling the probability of Ink Disease, crown decline and associated Phytophthora species in chestnut groves in global climatic change scenarios.




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