The impact of Phytophthora disease on riparian populations of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in southern Britain

Publication Type:

Journal Article


European Journal of Forest Pathology, Volume 29, p.39–50 (1999)



Summary In 1994 a survey was established to obtain information on Phytophthora disease of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) on the riverbanks of southern England and east Wales. Within an area of 70 000 km2 63 observation plots were set up on stretches of river over 8 m wide. Average alder densities varied widely in different parts of the survey area; from 0.7 to 22.2 trees per 100 m of river. From the density figures and data on the total length of rivers over 8 m wide within the survey area, it was estimated that there were approximately 585 000 alder trees growing on the banks of such rivers. In 1994 3.9% of the trees showed crown symptoms of Phytophthora disease, and an additional 1.2% of trees were dead, although not all of these had been killed by Phytophthora. The disease occurred widely through the survey area with an indication that the highest percentage of affected trees was to be found in the south-east of England. Subsequent surveys showed that the combined percentage of symptomatic and dead trees rose to 6.0% in 1995 and to 7.9% in 1996. In the latter year, for an alder population of 585 000 trees, this would correspond to 32 800 symptomatic and 13 500 dead trees. The percentage of trees showing symptoms was seven times as high in trees growing within 1 m of the riverbank as in trees growing between 1 and 10 m of the bank. An examination of the relationships between disease incidence and various indices of water pollution revealed a positive association with total oxidized nitrogen. These results are discussed in relation to the biology and possible origin of the disease.