January 2017 Plant Disease article

First Report of Phytophthora × multiformis on Alnus glutinosa in Spain
C. Pintos-Varela, C. Rial-Martínez, O. Aguín-Casal, and J. P. Mansilla-Vázquez. Plant Disease 2017 101:1, 261-261
Alder species are threatened by a lethal disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora alni, one of the most important emergent pathogens of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years (Aguayo et al. 2014). Phytophthora alder decline has caused substantial economic losses and ecological damage from riparian alder populations. Initially, three different subspecies had been described, P. alni subsp. alni, P. alni subsp. uniformis, and P. alni subsp. multiformis. Recently, they have been raised to species status and renamed P. × alni, P. uniformis, and P. × multiformis, respectively (Husson et al. 2015). P. × alni was reported to be the most aggressive and pathogenic to alders. The other two species appear to be less aggressive, but are also considered pathogenic (Brasier and Kirk 2001). In Spain, P. × alni and P. uniformis has also been detected (Pintos Varela et al. 2012). In April 2014, crown dieback and mortality of Alnus glutinosa were noted across the riparian area along the Muiños River in Galicia (northwest Spain). Affected trees, showing abnormally small, yellow, and sparse leaves and necrotic lesions in the inner bark, were surveyed. Samples of bark including the cambium from active lesions, roots, and soil were collected. Phytophthora spp. were baited from saturated rhizosphere soil using carnation petals. Roots and tissue from fresh active inner bark lesions were plated onto selective medium V8-PARPH agar and incubated for 7 days at 22°C in the dark. A Phytophthora sp. isolated from root and bark was transferred to carrot agar (CA) and incubated in the dark. More....